It is impossible to imagine embarking on a new project without a few important techniques at the ready. If the project manager notes that one or more roles are murky, or that grumbling and unhappiness are bubbling up, the first one to apply should be the RACI matrix. Perhaps there isn’t a single person — one and only one — accountable for the project. Or perhaps someone who previously was responsible for a similar project should in the present project be merely informed. Clarify each person’s role in RACI terms and suddenly the project takes off with wings. Here is RACI, unpacked by Wikipedia:
Responsible: Those who do the work to achieve the task. There is at least one role with a participation type of responsible.
Accountable (also approver or final approving authority): The one ultimately answerable for the correct and thorough completion of the deliverable or task, and the one who delegates the work to those responsible. In other words, an accountable must sign off (approve) on work that responsible provides. There must be only one accountable specified for each task or deliverable.
Consulted (sometimes counsel): Those whose opinions are sought, typically subject matter experts; and with whom there is two-way communication.
Informed: Those who are kept up-to-date on progress, often only on completion of the task or deliverable; and with whom there is just one-way communication.