38 Rhetorical Devices

For quizzing oneself on the bus, in honor of MLK week. This set of devices is a great reminder that speaking is different from writing.

A Simple Guide to Interview Confidence

The prospect of giving a client presentation can give anyone a case of the willies, and in the case of an interview, the stakes are very high. The team wants to win the job, but can they make a persuasive 30-minute case to the decision-makers? Here is the perspective of one marketer who enjoys helping teams identify their own best advantage in the face of tough competition.

Repeat Thrice
Humans do pretty well remembering three things. For this reason, I break our unique selling proposition (USP) into three simple ideas whenever possible. When getting ready for an interview, we forge three main points to offer up to the decision-making body. What three things do we want them to remember about us so they select us as the winning team?
Another way to look at this is to remember the five-paragraph essay format you may have learned in middle school or junior high:

  • Introduction
  • Body paragraph 1
  • Body paragraph 2
  • Body paragraph 3
  • Conclusion

Great orators reiterate the structure when giving an oral presentation, because recalling it helps the listener stay oriented. Try this formula next time you are called upon to give a pitch or persuasive speech:

  • Tell ‘em what you’re going to tell ‘em; then
  • Tell ‘em; then
  • Tell ‘em what you told ‘em.

Team & Strategy
Due to our work on proposals, marketing professionals know how essential it is to pin down the team and the strategy. Likewise, interview preparation goes very smoothly when two things are clear: (1) what are the speakers’ roles and responsibilities and (2) what is the strategy to win?

Getting clear on the team is a process of understanding why exactly each person is in the room. Normally to an interview we can only bring a handful of people, and at first the choice might seem simple, for example, we are bringing the principal-in-charge, the project manager, and a key specialist. However, during discussion it often turns out that the people were chosen to participate for more unique reasons, and these reasons can be real differentiators against the competition. For example, the interior designer might have deep experience in senior living, which could be highly relevant to the project and a weak line of business for the competition.

Very often I see interview preparation bog down when people are drafting the slide deck. The natural instinct for designers to collect a million visual aids is not necessarily a bad thing, but we have to recognize it for what it is: the research phase. In sixth grade, when I wrote my first big paper –on Martin Luther King, Jr. –I was taught to put each fact or idea on a separate notecard and then lay them all around the room to organize my thinking about his life and speeches. I have a dream …

I have worked with many frustrated graphic designers who turn to me and say at this moment, “This deck has two hundred slides in it! How am I going to format and clean these up in time?” When I hear that, I know it’s time to talk to the top person on the team about their strategy, because they may not have whittled it down far enough. What effect do they want to have on the decision-makers, what are the three most important points, and then, which slides best support the three important points, and in which order?

Where Is the Love?
If the top person on the team is bucking like a bronco and not getting very far with strategy, we look for the love. Some call it passion, others call it a nexus of energy. Whatever the term, it is difficult for a project team immersed in preparation to recognize, yet easy for a facilitator. When the group is struggling to identify their best angles or most relevant work and then suddenly pivot, all pointing to something while speaking excitedly, they have found the love. It happens a few more times, typically during discussion, and these moments are what the facilitator must jot down. Very likely, these points can be arranged into a winning outline.

In Conclusion
With true love found, team and strategy identified, and a promise of working to a simple three-part outline, it’s time to return to that terribly long deck of slides and cull, cull, cull. When all the waste is removed, elegance remains. The visual aids now support the presentation, not the reverse.

BONUS video: Here is Nancy Duarte via the Harvard Business Review on very simple slides: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OeV2fHEM4RI

10 Takes on Personal Presence

1. Style. See Bill Cunningham New York, the documentary about the world’s best street style photographer. It is the tale also of a decades-long unerring point of view.

2. Grooming. SMPS Boston shared “Dress for Success” tips last week on their blog. We had to clip the grooming section, which said essentially, “Get a facial a couple of times a year to avoid over-reliance on cosmetics.”

3. Persuasion. My dramatic speech teacher from high school found a lucrative encore career helping executives become more lucid and persuasive.

4. Holding a room. Sometimes this means getting to know the room ahead of time. How much will your voice have to project?

5. Posture. You cannot hold a room unless you stand up straight.

6. Preparation. Send people the agenda ahead of time when it is your meeting to lead. You will make them feel respected.

7. What Dad said. “Firm handshake and look ’em in the eye.”

8. Poise. See L’Amour Fou for a peek into the man behind 70s fashions, Yves St. Laurent and Valentino: The Last Emperor for a fashion business marriage of two men.

9. Manners. It is truly illuminating to read etiquette books from different decades. Miss Manners and Emily Post are still the reigning champions.

10. Generosity. Smile to yourself and to others and see it returned in unexpected ways.

War & Peace in Business

I am working on a conflict resolution project. In my early career I worked at a lot of nonprofits, or as they are often called abroad, non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The teams in these places are often influenced by the Quaker model of consensus building, which in turn is connected to the peace movement. The corporate world, on the other hand, is highly influenced by war and its strategy and tactics, as parlayed in such books as the Art of War (see Sun-Tzu). Can models for peace and war coexist to shape corporate culture?

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